- Swollen joints
- Accumulation of fluid in the ankles
- Morning stiffness
- Joint pain
- Joint redness
- Increased eye sensitivity and dryness
- Mouth dryness
- Nodules on the skin
- Inflammation of the lungs
Tendon repair surgery: To repair damaged tendon.
Synovectomy: To remove affected synovium.
Joint replacement surgery: Replacing joint with prosthesis.
Physical therapy: To improve joint movement.
Regular exercise and weight management.
Foods to eat:
- Fish oils and plant oils e.g. olive and coconut oil reduce arthritis
- Leafy vegetables, aloe vera, ginger and turmeric have anti-inflammatory agents
Foods to avoid:
- Red meat, refined grains, dairy products, saturated fats worsen inflammation
Gender and genes largely determine a person’s risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis. While the specific cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, it is believed that individuals with the HLA-DR1 or HLA-DR4 alleles have an increased risk for developing the disorder. However, genetics alone are not enough to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis; various lab tests, and x-rays, as well as characteristic signs and symptoms, are generally used to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis. Genetic testing can contribute to a better understanding of the origin of the disease for improved diagnosis and treatment.
- Cope AP et al. T cell responses to a human cartilage autoantigen in the context of rheumatoid arthritis-associated and nonassociated HLA-DR4 alleles. Arthritis Rheum. 1999; 42:1497.
- du Montcel ST et al. New classification of HLA-DRB1 alleles supports the shared epitope hypothesis of rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52:1063.
- Hill JA et al. Cutting edge: the conversion of arginine to citrulline allows for a high-affinity peptide interaction with the rheumatoid arthritis-associated HLA-DRB1*0401 MHC class II molecule. J Immunol. 2003; 171:538.
- Huizinga TW et al. Refining the complex rheumatoid arthritis phenotype based on specificity of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope for antibodies to citrullinated proteins. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52:3433.
- Klareskog L et al. A new model for an etiology of rheumatoid arthritis: smoking may trigger HLA-DR (shared epitope)-restricted immune reactions to autoantigens modified by citrullination. Arthritis Rheum. 2006; 54:38.
- Maksymowych WP et al. HLA and cytokine gene polymorphisms in relation to occurrence of palindromic rheumatism and its progression to rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2002; 29:2319.